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Semmelweis University Gallery

 

Grósz, Emil

 

(B. 30th September, 1865, Nagyvárad – D. 8th December, 1941, Budapest)

Dean: 1914/15 - 1915/16

He was born into a renowned dynasty of ophthalmologists in Nagyvárad. Frigyes Grósz, his grandfather was the founder of the eye hospital in Nagyvárad, Albert Grósz was his father and István Grósz his son. He went to secondary school in his home town, then enrolled at the Medical Faculty of the Budapest University. He was conferred his medical degree on 12th November, 1887, then was qualified as a secondary school teacher of health on 16th December. After his inauguration, he went on a study trip abroad from January to August 1888. On his return, he began working at the ophthalmology clinic of professor Vilmos Schulek, first as an intern, then assistant, later senior lecturer.

While his professor was absent from the clinic in 1893 and 1894, he functioned as deputy director of the clinic. He took his habilitation as privatdozent in the theory and practice of fundoscopy in the academic year 1894/95. He received the title of professor extraordinarius in 1900. He became a government commissioner of trachoma in 1903 and did much in this quality to update the trachoma law passed at the time of Kálmán Tisza and to eradicate infectious conjunctivitis, trachoma, an endemic of the age. He worked in this function until 1918. He was well-known for being a hard working person. In addition to his post at the university between 1900 and 1904, he was a principal consultant of ophthalmology first at the Szent János Hospital, then Szent István Hospital, and later at the Szent Rókus Hospital.

After the death of professor Schulek, he took over the clinical lead in 1905 and remained in this position until his retirement in 1936. He asked architects Flóris Korb and Kálmán Giergl to plan the new modern building of the clinic in Mária utca in 1908 which gained admiration in foreign countires at the time.

He was succesful in doing research on several areas of ophthalmology, e.g. diagnostics, pathology, surgery and therapy. He extensively studied the pathology of cataract, glaucoma, iritis, keratitis, retinal detachment (ablation retinae), glioma retinae, tabes optica, pupilla stagnation and hyalites, but he was interested in strabism and blindness, too.

He developed several ophthalmological procedures, the surgical method which was introduced by him for cataract treatment in old age has been applied all over the world. He founded the Association of Hungarian Ophthalmologists in 1904 and worked as editor of “Szemészet” (Ophtalmology), a journal which was published as a supplement of Orvosi Hetilap (Hungarian Medical Journal).

He launched “Orvosképzés” (Medical Training) in 1911 which was edited by him until 1929. He was a regular contributor of the journals Zeitschrift für Augenheilkunde and Archiv für Augenheilkunde but published articles in Egészség (Health), Budapesti Szemle (Budapest Survey), Egyetértés (Agreement) and Magyar Orvosi Archívum (Hungarian Medical Archive), too.

Grósz who was the father of institutional postgraduate training was vice-president of the Central Board of Postgraduate Training from 1910, then its president from 1926. He functioned as president of the Hungarian Association of Ophthalmologists from 1905 to 1919. The International Organization to Eliminate Trachoma elected Grósz to be its first president in 1930 when it was founded. He was member of several international ophthalmological societies, e.g. Deutsche Ophthalmologische Gesellschaft, Société Française d’Ophtalmologie, and the Ophthalmological Society of the United Kingdom. In addition, he was hononary member of the American College of Surgeons which had its seat in Philadelphia (1930) and the Royal Society of Medicine in London (1938). He was the holder of the Corcin-wreath (1930). He became honorary doctor of the university in Lyon in 1932. He was a professor who established a new school of thought. His students included László Blaskovics, Gusztráv Horay and József Imre. He served as dean of the Faculty of Medicine for two academic years during the World War 1. (1914-1916).

(Major works: Opthalmological diagnostics. Bp., 1893.; On the eyesight of railway workers. Bp. 1895.; Lectures on fundoscopy. Bp., 1897.; The connection between eye problems with other diseases of the body /co-author Károly Hoór/. Bp., 1900.; The new system of medical training in Hungary and abroad. Bp. 1902.; Methods of ophthalmological examination. Bp. 1902.; Principles of trachoma prevention. Bp. 1903.; Ophthalmological clinics, hospitals and department in Hungary. Bp. 1904.; On medical training. Bp. 1906.; Les facultés de médecine des universités de Budapest et de Kolozsvár /ed./. Bp. 1909.; Handbook of ophthalmology I–III. /co-author Károly Hoór/ Bp., 1909–10.; Trachoma. Bp. 1910.; Tuberculosis of the eye. in: Orvos képzés, 1913.; Trachoma prevention. in: Orvosi Hetilap (Hungarian Medical Journal), 1924.; Indikation der Zyklodyalise. Heidelberg, 1924.; Lectures, speeches, studies I–II. Bp. 1925.; Operative treatment of glaucoma. in: Arch. Ophth. 1931.; Extraction of senile cataract. Bp., 1931.; Postgraduate medical work in Hungary. Bp., 1931.)